Professionals with a graduate degree in business on their resumes earn between $1 million to $500,000 more during a 20-year career than colleagues who did not get an MBA or other advanced business degree. That’s the conclusion of a new study out today (Feb. 23) that showed that business school alumni earn a median cumulative base salary of $2.5 million over 20 years after graduation.
At a time when critics are questioning both the cost and value of higher education, even advising some students to drop out of college, the report by the Graduate Management Admission Council makes the strongest case yet for getting an MBA or another master’s degree in business. The estimates of post-degree compensation, moreover, are highly conservative because they do not include bonuses, stock awards, or other perks commonly given to MBA graduates and business executives.
Beyond the dollars-and-cents bottom line, however, GMAC’s survey of B-school alumni again shows exceptioanlly high levels of professional satisfaction with advanced business degrees. The survey of 14,279 business school alumni found that nine in ten, some 93%, say they would pursue their graduate management education again if given the choice. The vast majority say their education was personally (93% of respondents), professionally (89%), and financially (75%) rewarding. Alumni also are extremely likely to recommend their program to peers. Overall, the Net Promoter® (NPS®) score, a widely used metric of customer loyalty, was a +45 on all advanced business degrees, just two points lower than Apple. For the two-year MBA, it was +48, a point over Apple’s score.
STUDY FOUND ‘A FLATTENING OF RETURN-ON-INVESTMENT’ IN RECENT YEARS
No less crucial, the survey took into account the views of not only alumni of the highly ranked, elite business schools, but rather a much broader universe representing more than 275 graduate business programs at 70 universities in 20 geographies around the world. GMAC did not break out the results by how highly selective the programs were nor what rank the schools held. But it’s widely believed that graduates of highly ranked schools would yield even higher rates of satisfaction and career earnings.
The survey, however, was not all rosy news. Confirming earlier reports that the return-on-investment of the MBA has fallen in recent years, GMAC said that recent alumni from full-time two-year MBA programs show a flattening of ROI—hovering at about 40% at three years—due in part to increasing tuition and opportunity costs, which have trended upward at a faster rate during the past 20 years compared with starting base salaries.
One drawback of the analysis, of course, is that it is, by necessity, retrospective. The ROI calculations are based on tuition rates and opportunity costs that bear little relationship to present day reality. GMAC, for example, put the investment cost of a two-year MBA degree at only $105,000, the sum of a graduate’s out-of-pocket program costs together with their forgone pre-degree salary.
WHILE EYE-OPENING, THE ROI ESTIMATES COULD LOOK VERY DIFFERENT
Today, however, the typical Harvard Business School MBA left a job paying roughly $85,000 a year and faces out-of-pocket tuition and other fees of $72,312 a year, not including room and board. That makes the “investment” balloon to a staggering $315,000, three times the estimate used by GMAC. Sure, half the students at HBS get scholarship dollars to offset some of their tuition costs, and today’s graduates make far more money, too, but until the last two years MBA starting salaries had been stagnant for four years, while the sticker price on tuition has gone up every single year.
A study commissioned by Poets&Quants in 2014 found that business school brand does make a significant difference in the earnings of graduates. Alumni with an MBA from a top three school, the study found, had median 20-year cash compensation of $3,011,000. That’s more than $1.4 million more than the general population of MBAs over the same timeframe (see The Most Lucrative Seven-Figure MBA Degrees).
The study, based on self-reported compensation data to PayScale, found that the premium for an MBA degree over those with bachelor’s degree was $470,000 over a 20-year span, with MBAs making $1,771,000 over BAs who made $1,301,000. But earnings varied significantly when the ranking of a given school was factored into the calculations. Top 10 MBA grads racked up $2,759,500 in income over the 20 years, while Top 50 MBA alums toted up $2,266,000 in cash compensation.
ROI ON THE TWO-YEAR MBA HAS REMAINED POSITIVE 3 YEARS AFTER GRADUATION IN 19 OF THE PAST 20 YEARS
GMAC said that while the ROI of a full-time two-year MBA fluctuates with economic cycles, return-on-investment has remained positive three years after graduation in 19 of the past 20 years. The only exception, 1991 to 1993, coincided with the end of a recession. After the economic run-up in the 1990s, three-year ROI declined again during an economic downturn in the early 2000s. More recently, ROI began to improve until the Great Recession, when it remained stagnant, hovering near 40% in the three years between 2008 and 2012.
On a two-year MBA program for graduates from 1986 to 2012, the median ROI after five years is now 132%, after ten years, it rises to 445% (see table below). No wonder the survey found that more than four in five alumni are satisifed that their education met their investment expectations, an extraordinary degree of satisfaction given the “flattening of ROI” in more recent years.
The Bottom Line: Calculating The ROI Of Graduate Business Degrees