Tuck | Mr. Federal Civilian
GMAT 780, GPA 3.4
Stanford GSB | Mr. S.N. Bose Scholar
GMAT 770, GPA 3.84
Duke Fuqua | Mr. O&G Geoscientist
GRE 327, GPA 2.9
Kenan-Flagler | Ms. Big Pharma
GRE 318, GPA 3.3
Chicago Booth | Mr. Indian O&G EPC
GMAT 730, GPA 3.75
Wharton | Ms. Product Manager
GMAT 730, GPA 3.4
Kellogg | Mr. Indian Globetrotter
GMAT 750, GPA 4.0
Berkeley Haas | Ms. Jill Of All Trades
GRE 314, GPA 3.36
Berkeley Haas | Ms. Midwest Startup
GRE 328, GPA 3.51
Wharton | Mr. Big 4
GMAT 770, GPA 8/10
Stanford GSB | Mr. MBB
GMAT 740, GPA 3.95
Wharton | Mr. Swing Big
GRE N/A, GPA 3.1
Stanford GSB | Mr. Big Brother
GRE 329, GPA 3.2
Harvard | Mr. Low GPA Product Manager
GMAT 780, GPA 3.1
Kenan-Flagler | Ms. Nonprofit Admin
GMAT 620, GPA 3.3
Kenan-Flagler | Mr. Top Three
GRE 310, GPA 2.7
Ross | Mr. NCAA to MBB
GMAT 710, GPA 3.2
Kellogg | Mr. 770 Dreamer
GMAT 770, GPA 8.77/10
Tepper | Mr. Tech Strategist
GRE 313, GPA 3.0
Stanford GSB | Mr. JD To MBA
GRE 326, GPA 3.01
Duke Fuqua | Mr. Musician To Consultant
GMAT 710, GPA 1.6
Harvard | Mr. Bangladeshi Analyst
GMAT 690, GPA 3.31
MIT Sloan | Mr. Generic Nerd
GMAT 720, GPA 3.72
Darden | Mr. Military Vet
GMAT 680, GPA 3.5
Duke Fuqua | Ms. ELS
GRE 318, GPA 3.8
Wharton | Mr. Investment Banking
GMAT 750, GPA 3.1
MIT Sloan | Mr. International Impact
GRE 326, GPA 3.5

Can An MBA Add $1 Million To Your Income? A New Study Says So

Over 20 years, MBA alumni earn between $500,000 and $1 million more in salary than colleges without the degree

Over 20 years, MBA alumni earn between $500,000 and $1 million more in salary than colleges without the degree

Professionals with a graduate degree in business on their resumes earn between $1 million to $500,000 more during a 20-year career than colleagues who did not get an MBA or other advanced business degree. That’s the conclusion of a new study out today (Feb. 23) that showed that business school alumni earn a median cumulative base salary of $2.5 million over 20 years after graduation.

At a time when critics are questioning both the cost and value of higher education, even advising some students to drop out of college, the report by the Graduate Management Admission Council makes the strongest case yet for getting an MBA or another master’s degree in business. The estimates of post-degree compensation, moreover, are highly conservative because they do not include bonuses, stock awards, or other perks commonly given to MBA graduates and business executives.

Beyond the dollars-and-cents bottom line, however, GMAC’s survey of B-school alumni again shows exceptioanlly high levels of professional satisfaction with advanced business degrees. The survey of 14,279 business school alumni found that nine in ten, some 93%, say they would pursue their graduate management education again if given the choice. The vast majority say their education was personally (93% of respondents), professionally (89%), and financially (75%) rewarding. Alumni also are extremely likely to recommend their program to peers. Overall, the Net Promoter® (NPS®) score, a widely used metric of customer loyalty, was a +45 on all advanced business degrees, just two points lower than Apple. For the two-year MBA, it was +48, a point over Apple’s score.


No less crucial, the survey took into account the views of not only alumni of the highly ranked, elite business schools, but rather a much broader universe representing more than 275 graduate business programs at 70 universities in 20 geographies around the world. GMAC did not break out the results by how highly selective the programs were nor what rank the schools held. But it’s widely believed that graduates of highly ranked schools would yield even higher rates of satisfaction and career earnings.

The survey, however, was not all rosy news. Confirming earlier reports that the return-on-investment of the MBA has fallen in recent years, GMAC said that recent alumni from full-time two-year MBA programs show a flattening of ROI—hovering at about 40% at three years—due in part to increasing tuition and opportunity costs, which have trended upward at a faster rate during the past 20 years compared with starting base salaries.

One drawback of the analysis, of course, is that it is, by necessity, retrospective. The ROI calculations are based on tuition rates and opportunity costs that bear little relationship to present day reality. GMAC, for example, put the investment cost of a two-year MBA degree at only $105,000, the sum of a graduate’s out-of-pocket program costs together with their forgone pre-degree salary.


Today, however, the typical Harvard Business School MBA left a job paying roughly $85,000 a year and faces out-of-pocket tuition and other fees of $72,312 a year, not including room and board. That makes the “investment” balloon to a staggering $315,000, three times the estimate used by GMAC. Sure, half the students at HBS get scholarship dollars to offset some of their tuition costs, and today’s graduates make far more money, too, but until the last two years MBA starting salaries had been stagnant for four years, while the sticker price on tuition has gone up every single year.

A study commissioned by Poets&Quants in 2014 found that business school brand does make a significant difference in the earnings of graduates. Alumni with an MBA from a top three school, the study found, had median 20-year cash compensation of $3,011,000. That’s more than $1.4 million more than the general population of MBAs over the same timeframe (see The Most Lucrative Seven-Figure MBA Degrees).

The study, based on self-reported compensation data to PayScale, found that the premium for an MBA degree over those with bachelor’s degree was $470,000 over a 20-year span, with MBAs making $1,771,000 over BAs who made $1,301,000. But earnings varied significantly when the ranking of a given school was factored into the calculations. Top 10 MBA grads racked up $2,759,500 in income over the 20 years, while Top 50 MBA alums toted up $2,266,000 in cash compensation.


GMAC said that while the ROI of a full-time two-year MBA fluctuates with economic cycles, return-on-investment has remained positive three years after graduation in 19 of the past 20 years. The only exception, 1991 to 1993, coincided with the end of a recession. After the economic run-up in the 1990s, three-year ROI declined again during an economic downturn in the early 2000s. More recently, ROI began to improve until the Great Recession, when it remained stagnant, hovering near 40% in the three years between 2008 and 2012.

On a two-year MBA program for graduates from 1986 to 2012, the median ROI after five years is now 132%, after ten years, it rises to 445% (see table below). No wonder the survey found that more than four in five alumni are satisifed that their education met their investment expectations, an extraordinary degree of satisfaction given the “flattening of ROI” in more recent years.

The Bottom Line: Calculating The ROI Of Graduate Business Degrees

Source: GMAC 2016 Alumni Perspectives Survey

Source: GMAC 2016 Alumni Perspectives Survey

About The Author

John A. Byrne is the founder and editor-in-chief of C-Change Media, publishers of Poets&Quants and four other higher education websites. He has authored or co-authored more than ten books, including two New York Times bestsellers. John is the former executive editor of Businessweek, editor-in-chief of Businessweek. com, editor-in-chief of Fast Company, and the creator of the first regularly published rankings of business schools. As the co-founder of CentreCourt MBA Festivals, he hopes to meet you at the next MBA event in-person or online.